A listed building, in the United Kingdom, is a building that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest.
It is a widely used status, applied to around half a million buildings. The term 'building' may include a wide range of structures including bridges, milestones and follies. Generally, these buildings will have survived without too much alteration and be good examples of a certain period or type of architecture.
The principles of selection are:
- All buildings before 1700 which survive in anything like their original condition
- Most buildings between 1700 and 1840 though some selection is necessary
- Between 1840 and 1914 it is necessary to identify the best examples of particular building types and only buildings of definite quality and character are chosen
- Similarly only selected buildings from the period after 1914 are normally listed
- Buildings which are less than 30 years old are listed only if they are of outstanding quality and under threat.
In choosing buildings, particular attention is paid to:
- Architectural interest: the lists are meant to include all buildings which are of importance to the nation for the interest of their architectural design, decoration and craftsmanship; also important examples of particular building types and techniques (e.g. buildings displaying technological innovation or virtuosity) and significant plan forms.
- Historic interest: this includes buildings which illustrate important aspects of the nation's social, economic, cultural or military history.
- Close historical association: with nationally important people or events.
- Group value, especially where buildings comprise an important architectural or historic unity or a fine example of planning (e.g. squares, terraces or model villages).
There are three grades of listed buildings:
Grade I: these are buildings of outstanding interest.
Grade II*: these are particularly important buildings
Grade II: these are buildings of special interest which warrant every effort being made to preserve them.
Nationally the Grade I and Grade II* buildings account for approximately six per cent of all listed buildings. The number of listed buildings in Rother is 2114 (as at 31 March 2002 and based on list entries), 40 of which are Grade I and 80 of which are Grade II*.
The Department of Culture Media and Sport lists give the location of the building and a brief description. They do not itemise all the particular features. When a building is listed it is the whole of the building which is covered; it includes internal as well as external details. In addition, any object or structure which is attached to the building is covered by the listing together with any object or structure which has been free standing within the grounds since before 1 July 1948.
Alterations and extensions
If you propose to carry out either internal or external alterations or extensions to a listed building which would affect its character, you will need to apply for Listed Building Consent. This procedure is similar to that for planning permission except that no fee is charged. The work proposed may also require planning permission and the law requires two separate applications to be submitted; one for planning permission and one for Listed Building Consent. Building Regulation Approval may also be necessary. More information is contained in our Listed Buildings Advice Note.
It is important to note that if works are undertaken to a listed building without consent then whoever commissions them and the person who actually carried them out may be guilty of a criminal offence. In addition it may be necessary to put right the works which have been undertaken if consent is not forthcoming because the works are considered unsuitable.
Advertisement of applications for Listed Building Consent
An application for Listed Building Consent is advertised in the local press and by posting a notice on the site. This is done by the Local Planning Authority. There will be a period of 21 days after this so that members of the public can comment if they wish.
All owners of listed buildings have a duty to look after them and to carry out repairs when needed. Failure to do this may result in a repairs notice being served. The Council also has powers to carry out emergency repairs to an empty or part-empty building and to recover the cost from the owner, or, as a last resort, to compulsorily acquire the property.